UNIT 7: Natural Selection    Riedell AP Bio Evolution unit webpage     20-23 Class Periods     Exam Weight 13-20%

1-EVO Evolution
2-ENE Energetics
3-IST Information Storage and Transmission
4-SYI Systems Interactions
SP1 Concept Explanations
SP2 Visual Representations
SP3 Questions and Methods
SP4 Representing and Describing Data
SP5 Statistical Tests and Data Analysis
SP6 Argumentation

Videos LABS/Activities WATCH VIDEOS/BILL Activities/GOOGLE DOCS Quiz
Natural Selection EVO 1.C.1 & 1.C.2
Examples of Natural Selection 
EVO 1.C.1 & 1.C.2

Genetic Drift   EVO 1.H.1
Evidence for Evolution  EVO 1.H.1
Essential Characteristics of Life Conserved 
EVO 2.C.1

Hardy Weinberg Equation
EVO 1.K.1 & 1.K.2

Solving Hardy Weinberg Problems
EVO 1.K.1 & 1.K.2
Hardy Weinberg Punnett Square
EVO 1.K.1 & 1.K.2
Phylogenetics  EVO 1.C
Speciation and Extinction  EVO 3.D. EVO 3.G
Speciation  EVO 3.D.1 and 2
olution Continues  EVO 3.A.1
The Origin of Life
Comparing DNA   EVO 1.N.2
Cladograms   EVO 3.B.1

Miller Urey Experiment video  SYI 3.E.1
What is the RNA world hypothesis?

SYI 3.E.2

HHMI-Neil Shubin's

Your inner reptile

Your Inner fish
Your InnerMonkey

It's OK to be smart-
How your DNA Proves Evolution is real
 EVO 1.M.1

12 Days of Evolution series EVO 1.D; 1.F; 1.G
Evolution #1- What is Evolution?
Evolution #2- Is it random?
Evolution #3- See it happen?
Evolution #4- Make an Eye
Evolution #5- New species
Evolution #6-Evolution is dumb
Evolution #7- Why men have nipples?
Evolution #8-2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Evolution #9- Can evolution create information?
Evolution #10- Why are there still apes?
Evolution #11-Are humans still evolving?
Evolution #12- Does Evolution have a point?

2 minute Classroom videos
Convergent vs divergent evolution 
EVO 1.G.1: EVO 3.E

Homologous Structures 

EVO 1.N.1.b

Genetic Drift, Founder effect, Bottleneck
EVO 1.H.1

"Old" Lab 8 PTC sampling 
EVO 1.K.1 & 1.K.2

Case I & II
Data sheet

Population Modeling

Old Lab 8 Case III & IV EVO 1.L.2
Old Lab 8 data sheet 

LAB #3:Hands on Phylogeny (BLAST)
From Madhav Nepal

How to build a cladogram  EVO 3.B.1




















TEDEd- Five Fingers of Evolution video    EVO 1.K.1; EVO 1.L.1 
5 fingers BILL NOTES

How Does Evolution Really work?   EVO 1.C      

Evolution Google Docs quiz

Reproductive barriers   EVO 3.D.1 and 2
From http://www.dwm.ks.edu.tw/bio/activelearner/19/ch19summary.html

What prevents species from interbreeding 

Origin of Life Abiogenesis   SYI 3.E     
BILL ?'s

Patterns of evolution Bio Review   EVO 3.E


Hardy Weinberg Problems 
EVO 1.K.1 & 1.K.2

Genetic drift vs gene flow  EVO 1.H.1   
What's the difference? 

Make a prediction   EVO 1.M.1; EVO 3.A.2

CER Human -Chromosome #2
    EVO 1.M.1; EVO 1.N.2         
Human chromosome #2

HHMI-Rock Pocket mice video  
EVO 1.D; EVO 1.E
Rock Pocket ?'s from Lee Ferguson

BILL genetic variation 
IST 1.H.2; 1.H.3; EVP 1.J.1


Past FRQs
3.5 till infinity

Evo-Devo (Despacito)

BioBirthday-Miller Urey Experiment

Evolution cartoons
Powerpoint Click and go Evolution review


Clicker review

Bozeman reviews
Unit 1 review-Natural selection

Unit 2 Review- Speciation

Ch 22 Evolution Interactive Crossword

Ch 23 Evolution of Populations Crossword

Chapter 24-Speciation Crossword



LO/EK description  
EVO 1.C Describe the causes of natural selection.  
EVO 1.C.1 Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution Natural Selection
Examples of Natural Selection

How Does Evolution Really work?         
EVO 1.C.2 According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection, competition for limited resources results in differential survival. Individuals with more favorable phenotypes are more likely to survive and produce more offspring, thus passing traits to subsequent generations.
EVO 1.D Explain how natural selection affects populations.  
EVO 1.D.1 Evolutionary fitness is measured by reproductive success. HHMI-Rock Pocket mice video

Rock Pocket ?'s from Lee Ferguson
EVO 1.D.2 Biotic and abiotic environments can be more or less stable/fluctuating, and this affects the rate and direction of evolution; different genetic variations can be selected in each generation.
EVO 1.E Describe the importance of phenotypic variation in a population  
EVO 1.E.1 Natural selection acts on phenotypic variations in populations. HHMI-Rock Pocket mice video

Rock Pocket ?'s from Lee Ferguson
EVO 1.E.2 Environments change and apply selective pressures to populations.
EVO 1.E.3 Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease fitness of the organism in particular environments.
EVO 1.F Explain how humans can affect diversity within a population.  
EVO 1.F.1 Through artificial selection, humans affect variation in other species.
EVO 1.G Explain the relationship between changes in the environment and evolutionary changes in the population.  
EVO 1.G.1 Convergent evolution occurs when similar selective pressures result in similar phenotypic adaptations in different populations or species. Convergent vs divergent evolution
EVO 1.H Explain how random occurrences affect the genetic makeup of a population.  
EVO 1.H.1 Evolution is also driven by random occurrences—
a. Mutation is a random process that contributes to evolution.
b. Genetic drift is a nonselective process occurring in small populations—
i. Bottlenecks.
   ii. Founder effect.
c. Migration/gene flow can drive evolution.
Genetic Drift

Genetic Drift, Founder effect, Bottleneck
Genetic drift vs gene flow

What's the difference? BILL ?'s
EVO 1.I Describe the role of random processes in the evolution of specific populations.  
EVO 1.I.1 Reduction of genetic variation within a given population can increase the differences between populations of the same species.  
EVO 1.J Describe the change in the genetic makeup of a population over time.  
EVO 1.J.1 Mutation results in genetic variation, which provides phenotypes on which natural selection acts. BILL genetic variation 
EVO 1.K Describe the conditions under which allele and genotype frequencies will change in populations.  
EVO 1.K.1 Hardy-Weinberg is a model for describing and predicting allele frequencies in a nonevolving population. Conditions for a population or an allele to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are—(1) a large population size, (2) absence of migration, (3) no net mutations, (4) random mating, and (5) absence of selection. These conditions are seldom met, but they provide a valuable null hypothesis. TEDEd- Five Fingers of Evolution      
5 fingers BILL NOTES
EVO 1.K.2 Allele frequencies in a population can be calculated from genotype frequencies. Hardy Weinberg Problems 
EVO 1.L Explain the impacts on the population if any of the conditions of Hardy- Weinberg are not met.  
EVO 1.L.1 Changes in allele frequencies provide evidence for the occurrence of evolution in a population. TEDEd- Five Fingers of Evolution      
5 fingers BILL NOTES
EVO 1.L.2 Small populations are more susceptible to random environmental impact than large populations. Old Lab 8 Case IV
Old Lab 8 data sheet
EVO 1.M Describe the types of data that provide evidence for evolution.  
EVO 1.M.1 Evolution is supported by scientific evidence from many disciplines (geographical, geological, physical, biochemical, and mathematical data). Evidence for Evolution
How your DNA Proves Evolution is real
Make a prediction BILL ?'s

BILL ?'s           
CER Human -Chromosome #2
Human chromosome #2
Convergent vs divergent evolution
Homologous Structures
EVO 1.N Explain how morphological, biochemical, and geological data provide evidence that organisms have changed over time.  
EVO 1.N.1 Molecular, morphological, and genetic evidence from extant and extinct organisms adds to our understanding of evolution—
   a. Fossils can be dated by a variety of methods.
These include:
       i. The age of the rocks where a fossil is found
      ii. The rate of decay of isotopes including carbon-14
     iii. Geographical data
   b. Morphological homologies, including vestigial structures, represent features shared by common ancestry.
Evidence for Evolution video

Homologous Structures video
EVO 1.N.2 A comparison of DNA nucleotide sequence and/or protein amino acid sequences provides evidence for evolution and common ancestry. Comparing DNA video
CER Human -Chromosome #2  BILL ?'s  
Human chromosome #2 BILL ?'s
EVO 2.B Explain how morphological, biochemical, and geological data provide evidence that organisms have changed over time.  
EVO 2.B.1 Many fundamental molecular and cellular features and processes are conserved across organisms. Essential Characteristics of Life Conserved  video
EVO 2.B.2 Structural and functional evidence supports the relatedness of organisms in all domains.
EVO 2.C Describe structural and functional evidence on cellular and molecular levels that provides evidence for the common ancestry of all eukaryotes.  
  2.C.1 Structural evidence indicates common ancestry of all eukaryotes—
a. Membrane-bound organelles
b. Linear chromosomes
c. Genes that contain introns
Essential Characteristics of Life Conserved  video
EVO 3.A Explain how evolution is an ongoing process in all living organisms.  
EVO 3.A.1 Populations of organisms continue to evolve. Evolution Continues video
EVO 3.A.2 All species have evolved and continue to evolve—
a. Genomic changes over time.
b. Continuous change in the fossil record.
c. Evolution of resistance to antibiotics, pesticides, herbicides, or chemotherapy drugs.
d. Pathogens evolve and cause emergent diseases.
Make a prediction BILL ?'s
EVO 3.B Describe the types of evidence that can be used to infer an evolutionary relationship.  
EVO 3.B.1 Phylogenetic trees and cladograms show evolutionary relationships among lineages—
a. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms both show relationships between lineages, but phylogenetic trees show the amount of change over time calibrated by fossils or a molecular clock.
b. Traits that are either gained or lost during evolution can be used to construct phylogenetic trees and cladograms—
    i. Shared characters are present in more than one lineage.
   ii. Shared, derived characters indicate common ancestry and are informative for the  
       construction of phylogenetic trees and cladograms.
   iii. The out-group represents the lineage that is least closely related to the remainder of
        the organisms in the phylogenetic tree or cladogram.
Cladograms video

How to build a cladogram 

2011 #4c & 2009 #3b
EVO 3.B.1 c. Molecular data typically provide more accurate and reliable evidence than morphological traits in the construction of phylogenetic trees or cladograms. Comparing DNA video
EVO 3.C Explain how a phylogenetic tree and/or cladogram can be used to infer evolutionary relatedness.  
EVO 3.C.1 Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be used to illustrate speciation that has occurred. The nodes on a tree represent the most recent common ancestor of any two groups or lineages. Cladograms video
How to build a cladogram 
EVO 3.C.2 Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be constructed from morphological similarities of living or fossil species and from DNA and protein sequence similarities.
EVO 3.C.3 Phylogenetic trees and cladograms represent hypotheses and are constantly being revised, based on evidence.
EVO 3.D Describe the conditions under which new species may arise.  
EVO 3.D.1 Speciation may occur when two populations become reproductively isolated from each other. Reproductive barriers  BILL ?'s
What prevents species from interbreeding  BILL ?'s
EVO 3.D.2 The biological species concept provides a commonly used definition of species for sexually reproducing organisms. It states that species can be defined as a group capable of interbreeding and exchanging genetic information to produce viable, fertile offspring.
EVO 3.E Describe the rate of evolution and speciation under different ecological conditions  
EVO 3.E.1 Punctuated equilibrium is when evolution occurs rapidly after a long period of stasis. Gradualism is when evolution occurs slowly over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. Patterns of evolution Bio Review
Convergent vs divergent evolution video
EVO 3.E.2 Divergent evolution occurs when adaptation to new habitats results in phenotypic diversification. Speciation rates can be especially rapid during times of adaptive radiation as new habitats become available.
EVO 3.G Describe factors that lead to the extinction of a population.  
EVO 3.G.1 Extinctions have occurred throughout Earth’s history. Speciation and Extinction video
EVO 3.G.2 Extinction rates can be rapid during times of ecological stress
EVO 3.H Explain how the risk of extinction is affected by changes in the environment.  
EVO 3.H.1 Human activity can drive changes in ecosystems that cause extinctions. Speciation and Extinction video
EVO 3.I Explain species diversity in an ecosystem as a function of speciation and extinction rates.  
EVO 3.I.1 The amount of diversity in an ecosystem can be determined by the rate of speciation and the rate of extinction. Speciation and Extinction video
EVO 3.J Explain how extinction can make new environments available for adaptive radiation.  
EVO 3.J.1 Extinction provides newly available niches that can then be exploited by different species. Speciation and Extinction video
SYI 3.D Explain how the genetic diversity of a species or population affects its ability to withstand environmental pressures.  
SYI 3.D.1 The level of variation in a population affects population dynamics—
a. Population ability to respond to changes in the environment is influenced by genetic diversity. Species and populations with little genetic diversity are at risk of decline or extinction.
b. Genetically diverse populations are more resilient to environmental perturbation because they are more likely to contain individuals who can withstand the environmental pressure.
c. Alleles that are adaptive in one environmental condition may be deleterious in another
because of different selective pressures.
SYI 3.E Describe the scientific evidence that provides support for models of the origin of life on Earth.  
SYI 3.E.1 Several hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth are supported with scientific evidence—
     a. Geological evidence provides support for models of the origin of life on Earth.
         i. Earth formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago (bya). The environment was
            too hostile for life until 3.9 bya, and the earliest fossil evidence for life dates to
            3.5 bya. Taken together, this evidence provides a plausible range of dates when
            the origin of life could have occurred.
Origin of Life 
   b. There are several models about the origin of  life on Earth—
           i. Primitive Earth provided inorganic precursors from which organic 
              molecules could have been synthesized because of the presence of available free
              energy and the absence of a significant quantity of atmospheric oxygen (O2).
           ii. Organic molecules could have been transported to Earth by a meteorite or
                other celestial event.
BioBirthday-Miller Urey Experiment

Miller Urey Experiment video
 c. Chemical experiments have shown that it is possible to form complex organic
              molecules from inorganic molecules in the absence of life—
           i. Organic molecules/monomers served as building blocks for the formation of
               more complex molecules, including amino acids and nucleotides.
           ii. The joining of these monomers produced polymers with the ability to replicate,
                store, and transfer information.
Crash Course: Where Did Life Come From?

BioBirthday-Miller Urey Experiment

Origin of Life video
BILL ?'s
SYI 3.E.2 The RNA World Hypothesis proposes that RNA could have been the earliest genetic material. What is the RNA world hypothesis?


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