AP CENTRAL FRQ's  2023    2022-1999    2020 Exam questions available in AP Classroom question bank



2021 #1   2021 All Questions      Scoring Guidelines 
Plasma membrane
Na+/K+ ATPase
Signal transduction pathway
Protein kinases
Experimental design
Dependent variable/controls
Explain data
Calculate expected
Predict/justify results of a change

2019 #1       2019 Free -Response Questions        Scoring Guidelines        Sample Responses Q1
Central Dogma
Effect of genetic mutation on pathway
Make a prediction/Justify
Feedback mechanisms

2019 #2       2019 Free -Response Questions             Scoring Guidelines       Sample Responses Q2
Limiting nutrients
Population growth

Calculate growth rate
Gene Regulation
Analyze data from graph

2019 #3       2019 Free -Response Questions               Scoring Guidelines           Sample Responses Q3
Location of pathway
Predict effect of genetic mutation

Calculate genetic probability


2019 #8     2019 Free -Response Questions                  Scoring Guidelines            Sample Responses Q8
Transport/cell membranes
Cell structure/function
Environmental impact on gene expression

2018 #2     2018 Free-Response Questions     Scoring Guidelines          Sample Responses Q2
Read a diagram
Cell structure/function
Predict e
ffect of change in pathway
Location of pathways/proteins in cell
Effect in hypotonic enviroment

Make/support a claim
Justify claim with evidence
Immune response

2018 #6    2018 Free-Response Questions       Scoring Guidelines            Sample Responses Q6
Location of cellular processes
Cell Structure/Function
Affect of mutation (CFTR) on cell processes

2018 #8  2018 All Free-Response Questions                 Scoring Guidelines          Sample Responses Q8
Receptors in nerve signaling
Structure/function in receptors
Effect of enzyme inhibition

2017 #8  2017 All Free-Response Questions            Scoring Guidelines           Sample Responses Q8
Cell membranes/transport
Hormones/cell signaling
Antibodies/Immune system

2016 #1  2016 Free-Response Questions                Scoring Guidelines             Sample Responses Q1
Construct a bar graph from data
Effect of salinity on allele frequency
Make a prediction from data
Make a prediction/Justify

2013 #6  2013 All questions      Scoring Guidelines       Sample Responses Q6
Use data provided
Identify cell function
Use data to support answer

2011 #1 2011 AP CENTRAL ESSAYS             2011 ?'s           Scoring Guidelines            Sample Responses Q1
Eukaryotic organelles
Prokaryotes vs eukaryotes
Endosymbiotic theory

2008 B #2 2008 All Questions      Scoring Guidelines       Sample Responses Q2
Structure function
Organization of subunits into:
~ A eukaryotic chromosome
~ mature angiosperm root
~ a colony of bees
~ An inner membrane of a mitochondrion
~ An enzyme

2007 #1   2007 All Questions          Scoring Guidelines         Sample Responses Q1
Molecular components of plasma membranes
Role of membranes in:
~ muscle contraction
~ fertilization of an egg
~ chemisomotic production of ATP
~ intercellular signaling

2007B  #3  2007B All  Questions        Scoring Guidelines        Sample Responses Q3
mRNA processing
Protein secretion pathway

2006 #1  2006 All Questions            Scoring Guidelines                       Sample Responses Q1
Eukaryotic organelles structure/function
Prokaryotes/Eukaryotes differences
Cell Wall
Endosymbiotic theory

2006B #2   2006B All Questions             Scoring Guidelines            Sample Responses Q2
Impact of structure on function of:
~ enyzme/catalysis
~ RNA/protein synthesis
~ cell membranes/signal transduction
~ membrane proteins/facilitated diffusion & active transport

2005 #2 2005 All Questions         Scoring Guidelines             Sample Responses Q2
Structure/function of eukaryotic chromosomes
Evolutionary significance

2003 B #3  2003B  Questions             Scoring Guidelines         Sample Responses Q3
Properties of water
~ transpiration
~ Thermoregulation in endotherms
~ plasma membrane structure
Role of water in carbon cycle
Impact of human activity on water cycle

2001 #4     2001 All  Questions         Scoring guidelines         Sample Responses Q4
Protein structure
Roles of DNA/RNA in protein synthesis
Roles of proteins in membrane structure/transport

OLD FRQ's  prior to 1995

(1998)  Cells transport substances across their membranes. 
Choose THREE of the following four types of cellular transport.
         Active Transport                 
         Facilitated diffusion        

For each of the three transport types you choose
a.  describe the transport process and explain how the organization of cell membranes functions in the movement of specific molecules  across the membrane.
b. explain the significance of each type of transport to a specific cell (you may use different cell types as examples.)

(1994)    Discuss how cellular structures, including the plasma membrane, specialized endoplasmic reticulum, cytoskeletal elements, and mitochondria, function together in the contraction of skeletal muscle cells.

(1993)    Membranes are important structural features of cells.
a.     Describe how membrane structure is related to the transport of materials across a membrane.
       b.     Describe the role of membranes in the synthesis of ATP in either cellular respiration or photosynthesis.

(1987)    Discuss the process of cell division in animals. Include a description of mitosis and cytokinesis, and of the other phases of the cell cycle. Do not include meiosis.

(1984)    Describe the structure of a generalized eukaryotic plant cell. Indicate the ways in which a nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell would differ in structure from this generalized eukaryotic plant cell.

(1983)    Describe the fluid-mosaic model of a plasma membrane. Discuss the role of the membrane in the movement of materials through by each of the following processes.
        a.     Active Transport
b.     Passive Transport

(1981)    Describe the structural arrangement and function of the membranes associated with each of the following eukaryotic organelles:
        a.     Mitochondrion
b.     Endoplasmic Reticulum
c.     Chloroplast
d.     Golgi Apparatus

(1978)    Describe a model of the cell membrane of a eukaryotic cell and discuss different ways in which substances move across the membrane.

(1975)    All living cells exploit their environment for energy and for molecular components in order to maintain their internal environments.
Describe the roles of several different membrane systems in these activities.

(1970)    Electron microscope studies have revealed the probable structures of plasma membranes and the membranes of various cell components.
        a.     Describe the kinds of observations and experiments that are used to study the basic structure and molecular components of these membranes.
        b.     Discuss mechanisms by which materials are thought to move across membranes.
        c.     Discuss the significance of membranes in the biochemical events which occur in mitochondria and chloroplasts.

(1969)    Suppose a team of scientists is examining the cells of a newly discovered species. They observe under the light microscope an organelle that appears to be different from any that has been described before. Assume that you are the director of the research team. Describe the methods that you would have the team use to determine whether the structure is a mitochondrion, ribosome, lysosome, nucleolus, or indeed a new organelle. Discuss the advantages and limitations of each method in revealing the role of the unknown organelle in the living cell.  

a. Describe the structure of the cell membrane as revealed by electron microscopy and biochemical studies.
b. Explain how the passage of substances through the cell membrane is regulated by the  physical and chemical properties of the substances involved.
c. Explain how the concentration of a solute on either side of a semi-permeable membrane  affects osmosis.

a. Make a schematic diagram of a generalized plant or animal cell, showing the structure of its parts as revealed by electron microscopy.
      Make a diagram the size of a full page and label it completely, indicating whether the cell is from a plant or an animal.
b. List the parts included in your diagram and describe briefly the activities or functions thought to be performed by each one.

(1959)    Some of the differentiated structures of plant and animal cells are cell walls, plasma membranes, chromosomes, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and spindle fibers.
Discuss four of these with respect to:
1) function  and  
2) physico-chemical nature.


(2007)  Membranes are essential components of all cells.